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Les microbiotes

Ensemble des micro-organismes (bactéries, levures, champignons, virus) vivant dans un environnement spécifique, appelé microbiome, chez un hôte animal ou végétal.

Le microbiote humain correspond à l'ensemble des micro-organismes qui ont colonisé votre corps et avec lesquels vous cohabitez : des bactéries pour l'essentiel, mais également des virus, des champignons, des levures et des protozoaires. Sa composition diffère selon les surfaces colonisées : on distingue ainsi le microbiote cutané, le microbiote vaginal, le microbiote urinaire, le microbiote respiratoire, le microbiote ORL et le microbiote intestinal, autrefois appelé flore intestinale, de loin le plus important avec ses 100 000 milliards de germes.


The ENT flora includes microbiotas from the ears, nose, throat and mouth. They contribute to the health of the sites they colonize, but under the influence of some factors, they can be disrupted and be associated to certain diseases. For example, the nose microbiota of asthmatic people is different from that of healthy individuals.

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Lungs and bronchi were assumed to be sterile in healthy people for a long time, but we now know for a fact that they host their own microbiota, which has a complex and still poorly understood role. This flora has arguably a protective role against infections and allergies, and it could be involved in the development of chronic respiratory diseases when it is disrupted by tobacco, antibiotics...

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The skin microbiota is made up of a complex mix of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites) coating the skin, and serves as a barrier. A disrupted skin microbiota can be associated to skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis or eczema.

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The gut microbiota includes all bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms that colonize our intestines. A balance between all the species contributes to our good health, but this balance can be disrupted by several factors (poor diet, antibiotics...) and then be associated to disorders such as diarrhea.

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Urinary tract

The urinary microbiota was recently discovered and still needs to be thoroughly investigated to be better understood. Its role is sometimes controversial, but it is assumed that it could contribute to the urinary tract health and that its imbalance could be associated to urinary disorders such as cystitis, prostatitis, urinary tract infection, etc.

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Microorganisms living in the vagina are collectively called “vaginal flora” and are essential to a good female intimate health. Together they form a fragile ecosystem whose composition varies depending on the different stages of life (pregnancy, menopause...). Their imbalance may be associated to infections such as bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis.

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