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«The first damage of taking antibiotics is the development of antibiotic resistance»

Dr Alexis Mosca
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Robert-Debré Hospital, Paris


Metabolic disruption and liver function disorders cause the major diseases of the twenty-first century. These findings currently give rise to a strong involvement of pre-clinical and clinical research, particularly for the following pathologies:
In occurrence of digestive symptoms, from benign to life-threatening cancerous pathologies, research has been interested in the roles the intestinal microbiota may play when it malfunctions.

The various microbiota

Intestinal microbiota

The intestinal microbiota is an organ in its own right.
Better characterized thanks to metagenomics, it is gradually giving up its secrets. Highly diversified, it lives in close relationship with its host. Formed from birth, it is specific to each individual and fulfills different functions within the body: barrier effect, trophic, metabolic and immune functions, etc., as well as others that remain to be elucidated.


Vaginal microbiota

The vaginal microbiota is an ecosystem constituted of microorganisms, where the genus Lactobacillus predominates. Its equilibrium is fragile and changes in its composition cause infections.


ENT microbiota

The ENT microbiota is an extremely diverse microbiota which is assumed to include at least 700 different species.


Cutaneous microbiota

Cutaneous microbiota is extremely diverse. Its composition varies according to the cutaneous zone and between individuals, and its imbalance is associated with skin diseases.


Pulmonary microbiota

The pulmonary microbiota was unknown for a long time, since it was commonly accepted that healthy lungs are sterile. This paradigm was cast into doubt with the discovery of the various human microbiota.


Urinary microbiota

The urinary microbiota was discovered very recently and has only begun to be described. Imbalances in this flora may be associated with problems in the urinary tract.


Management of dysbiosis


The WHO defines probiotics as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”.



Prebiotics are substrates that promote the growth of bacteria. They are thus essential for a balanced microbiota.



Symbiotics are products that combine prebiotics and probiotics to improve the benefits for the microbiota.


Fecal transplants

Fecal transplant consists of implanting a healthy microbiota through natural passages into a patient to restore their microbial ecosystem.


Nutritional modulation

The composition of intestinal microbiota depends on what food is ingested and has consequences on overall metabolism.



Biocodex Microbiota Institute

The Biocodex Microbiota Institute: an international leader in microbiota