Phylum or group of anaerobic Gram-positive Eubacteria; they are part of the dominant microbiota in the human colon.
Qualifies an organism that develops in the absence of oxygen.
Relating to anatomy. Anatomy is a science that studies the body parts of living organisms and how they interact: forms, structures, connections between organs, etc.
Drug prescribed to treat infectious diseases caused by fungi (mycoses)
Artery disease characterized by a loss of elasticity in an artery wall as a result of lipid deposits (patches of atheroma)
or Allergic eczema. Non contagious skin disease combining cutaneous dryness and itching, whose onset is favored by a predisposition to allergies
Vaginal infection caused by an imbalance in the bacterial flora of the vagina
Virus specifically infecting bacteria
Treatment of an infectious disease by introducing specific bacteria into the body
Genus of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Bacteroides are found in the digestive tract and mucus membranes and constitute an important part of the gastrointestinal flora.
Phylum composed of three large classes of bacteria that are dominant in the colon, particularly the genera Bacteroides and Porphyromonas.
Non-motile, Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus present in the intestinal flora
Genus of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria
Components coming from cholesterol that play a role in the digestion of fats
Short-chain fatty acid that ensures that the cells of the colonic mucosa function properly
Infection caused by a fungus belonging to the Candida genus, affecting the skin or mucus membranes in the mouth or genital areas (vagina, etc.)
First section of the large intestine
Autoimmune digestive disease caused by a gluten intolerance
Relating to children
Bacteria responsible for various acute and chronic genital, ocular, and respiratory infections in humans
Relating to the process of knowing
Layer of cells lining the colon
Epithelial membrane cell in the colon
Exam to explore the colonic mucosa
Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands and synthetically produced drugs that have the same effect as these hormones with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects
Inflammation of the bladder, most often caused by a urinary infection
Chronic disease related to a dysfunction in the production or use of insulin, a hormone that regulates glycemia
Molecule that transmits information between neurons. Dopamine is involved in motor control
First section of the small intestine, located at the exit from the stomach
Imbalance in the microbiota associated with harmful consequences for the host. Dysbiosis can result from an excess of detrimental microorganisms and/or a relative lack of microorganisms that are beneficial to the host
Combination of living organisms and their biological environment.
Relating to the intestines
Type of bacterial composition characterizing a microbiota. Currently, 3 enterotypes have been identified in humans.
Relating to the action of an enzyme, a protein involved in chemical reactions in the organism
Relating to the epithelium
Thin tissue formed by one or more juxtaposed layers of cells. There are two kinds: surface epithelium (skin or mucosa) and glandular epithelium (secretion function)
Intestinal Gram-negative bacteria, very common in humans (commensal). However, certain strains (pathogens) can generate disorders (gastroenteritis, urinary infections, etc.)
Primary species of firmicute in the human colon, which produces butyrate, among others. Its volume is reduced in Crohn’s disease.
Functional gastrointestinal disorder
Phylum consisting of Gram-positive bacteria including Clostridies and lactobacilli, prevalent in the human colon.
Complex carbohydrate composed of fructose polymers. They are produced by microorganisms or plants. There are different categories of fructans, including inulin
Complex carbohydrate composed of fructose and sucrose. They are the most frequent prebiotics, naturally present in food.
Complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) composed of fructose polymers
Complex carbohydrate composed of oligosaccharide and galactose. GOSs are present in breast milk, in particular.
Taxonomic rank gathering a set of species.
Gram-negative bacteria, causing a sexually transmitted genital infection (gonorrhea)
Corresponds to a bacterial classification as determined by a staining technique called Gram stain. While Gram-positive bacteria appear violet under the microscope, Gram-negative bacteria appear pink. The staining technique is based on characteristics of the bacteria’s membranes and wall.
The part of the microbiota shared by all or a vast majority of individuals.
Bacteria present in the stomach that can survive in a highly acidic environment. H. Pylori is involved in the majority of cases of stomach and duodenum ulcers.
Organism (human, animal, etc.) that is home to a virus, parasite, bacteria, etc. Also refers to a person receiving a transplant.
Inflammatory bowel disease
A body’s defense reaction involving immune cells
Molecular component that activates or slows down immune reactions (modulation)
Body’s resistance to hypoglycemic action (reduction of glucose levels in the blood) by insulin
All the organs that make up the intestines
(or bowel) Part of the digestive tract composed of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum.
Fructan obtained from chicory roots or artichokes. It is a prebiotic.
Genus of Gram-positive bacteria involved in the fermentation of carbohydrates and their transformation into lactic acid. Lactobacilli are important organisms in the intestinal flora
Component composed of lipids and carbohydrates
Relating to the mesentery
The mesentery is a membrane formed by the fold of the peritoneum (the membrane covering the abdominal cavity and its organs), connecting the jejunum and ileum (sections of the small intestine) to the posterior wall of the abdomen. It contains nerves and blood vessels
Relating to the metabolism
Set of chemical reactions that transform matter and energy, at the cellular level, inside the body
Product formed by the process of transforming an organic body (metabolism) within a cell, tissue, or the blood.
Also defines a product that enters the metabolic process
All of the intermediary or final metabolites in the microbiota.
Procedure aiming at studying the genetic content of a sample taken from a complex environment (like the intestine)
Procedure aiming at studying the protein content of a sample taken from a complex environment (like the intestine)
Procedure aiming at studying the RNA content of a sample taken from a complex environment (like the intestine).
All microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, fungi, virus) living in a specific environment
Viscous secretion produced by the cells of the mucus membranes It has a protective function
Anti-inflammatory drug used to counteract inflammation, fever, and pain.
Virus frequently responsible for gastroenteritis and diarrhea in developed countries
Carbohydrate composed of a set of one to a dozen simple carbohydrate molecules (monosaccharides)
Relating to the intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous administration of a drug
All of the bacteria that can cause diseases
Which can cause a disease
Which can occur at any point during the year (no seasonal influence, for example)
The study of existing connections between related species. Through it, it is possible to retrace the primary evolutionary stages of organisms from a common ancestor and therefore to more precisely classify the relationships between living beings
Second taxonomic rank which gathers several genera and species.
Pedunculated tumor (long structure), most often benign, that develops in body cavities lined with mucus membranes (intestine, esophagus, bladder, nose, etc.)
High molecular weight carbohydrate composed of numerous simple carbohydrate molecules (monosaccharides or simple sugars)
Non-digestible fibers in the diet that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial colon bacteria in the host’s microbiota.
Genus of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes
Living microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient quantity, have beneficial effects on the health of the host
Things that preserve health against the appearance, worsening, or expansion of diseases
Capacity of an ecosystem or species to resume normal development or function after experiencing trauma. When the microbiota is disturbed by antibiotics, it has a tendency (most often) to regain its equilibrium after a while.
Virus that can cause gastroenteritis
Genus of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes
Bacteria that can cause food poisoning responsible for gastroenteritis
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products from the fermentation of dietary fiber that is not absorbed or digested by the body. This fermentation is done by anaerobic bacteria in the microbiota present in the colon. SFCAs are composed of a maximum of six carbon atoms and are involved in energetic metabolism.
Fat overloadin the cells
(or feces or excrement) Residue of digestion excreted via defecation following digestive transit
Taxonomic rank below species.
Relating to symbiosis (an interdependent relationship between two organisms that cannot live without one another and that benefit from one another)
Science of classifying living organisms to describe them and group them into entities called taxons (families, genera, species, etc.) in order to be able to name and classify them.
Also known as tumor necrosis factor inhibitor. Medication with an anti-inflammatory action prescribed for the treatment of some chronic inflammatory diseases (IBDs, inflammatory polyarthritis, etc.)
Corticosteroid used to treat skin diseases
Defines both a set of organs making up a system (ex: digestive tract) and a set of fibers (connective or nerve) located on the surface or within an organ
Relating to the growth of organs, of living tissues, of an individual
Inflammatory disease of the rectum and colon(an IBD)
All of the “hair-shaped” small protrusions that line the surface of mucus membranes (ex: the intestine) and give it a hairy appearance
Microscopic fungus made up of a single cell (unicellular). Some yeasts are involved in food fermentation and are used in cooking (brewer’s yeast, etc.). Some are used for therapeutic purposes (Saccharomyces boulardii). Others can even cause diseases (ex. Candidiasis caused by Candida albicans)